Introduction(cnc steel Iris)
- source:DAHLER CNC Machining
The costs of CNC machines can vary greatly depending on the size, capabilities and features. When evaluating the total costs of CNC equipment, buyers should consider not just the upfront price of the machine itself, but also additional factors like software, installation, training and maintenance. This article will provide an overview of the major cost components associated with purchasing CNC equipment.
Machine Purchase Price
The base price of a CNC machine represents one of the biggest upfront costs. Entry-level CNC mills and lathes can start below $10,000, while high-end CNC machining centers can cost over $100,000. The machine type, size, accuracy, software capabilities, brand reputation and country of manufacture all impact the purchase price. Bigger machines with greater horsepower, torque and work envelope capabilities will be more expensive. Additional features like automatic tool changers, pallet changers and robotic part loaders also add to the costs. Reputable machine tool builders from countries like Germany, Japan and the United States typically command higher prices compared to machines made in China.
Cutting Tools and Workholding Fixtures
Beyond the actual CNC machine, buyers also need tooling to hold and cut the workpieces. This includes cutting tools like end mills, drills, taps and reamers. Tool holders and collets are required to clamp the cutting tools into the machine spindle. Workholding fixtures like vises, clamps and v-blocks securely hold the parts in place during machining. For CNC mills, machine vises represent essential workholding. Higher volume production on CNC lathes usually employs hydraulic or pneumatic chucks. Jaws or collet chucks also hold the workpieces. Custom workholding fixtures like tombstones, v-blocks and angle plates optimize the machining process but can be quite expensive. The costs of cutting tools, tool holders and workholding solutions add up quickly.
CNC machines require CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing) software to convert product designs into machining instructions. CAD software creates digital 3D models of the parts. CAM software then generates toolpath and G-code to drive the actual machining. Different CAD/CAM packages range in price from a few hundred dollars for basic 2D solutions up to $10,000+ for advanced 3D modeling and multi-axis machining modules. The software costs scale with the complexity and capabilities provided. Most shops budget several thousand dollars at minimum for an integrated CAD/CAM solution.
CNC Machine Setup
Installing and setting up a new CNC machine requires both expertise and labor. The machine must be positioned properly, leveled, anchored to the floor and connected to electric power. Technicians need to assemble any accessories, perform calibration and configuration, and connect the CNC system to the CAM software. Simple benchtop CNC mills may only take a day or two. Large-scale machining centers can take a week or more for installation and commissioning. labor rates for CNC setup technicians typically range $50-$100 per hour.
The machine operators also need proper training to program, setup and run the CNC equipment efficiently and safely. Most CNC machine tool suppliers offer operation and maintenance courses. Typical CNC operator training may involve a week of classes for 2-3 employees and cost over $2000. Ongoing training is ideal as staff gets up to speed with utilizing the full capabilities of the CNC machines. Companies should budget for both initial and recurring training to maximize productivity with the CNC investment.
Maintenance and Repair
All industrial machines require periodic maintenance and repairs, and CNC equipment is no exception. Preventative maintenance is crucial to sustain accuracy and avoid unexpected downtime. Most CNC machines need scheduled cleanings, lubrication, inspections, adjustments and component replacements. Unexpected problems will inevitably occur over time with control boards, power supplies, cabling, pneumatic systems, etc. Repair costs can easily run thousands of dollars if major components like spindles need rebuilding or replacing. Budgeting approximately 10% of the machine purchase price per year for maintenance and repairs is a good rule of thumb.
Cutting Tool Costs
The consumable cutting tools used on CNC machines represent one of the biggest ongoing costs of operation. Large facilities can spend over $100,000 per month on cutting tools for CNC mills, lathes, drills and other machine tools. Carbide end mills, drills and taps must be replaced regularly as they wear and break down during machining. Proper tool management and selection can yield significant consumable savings. But tooling costs remain one of the largest variable expenses associated with CNC machining, so organizations should budget accordingly.
Raw material costs vary enormously depending on the parts being produced. But the materials represent one of the largest costs in manufacturing. At many machine shops, the raw stock can account for 30-60% of total job costs once the labor, overhead and tooling costs are factored together. Careful planning around stock sizes, material types, quantities and ordering can potentially yield major cost savings in CNC production. But the raw material inputs still amount to a significant cost component that must be tracked.
Software Maintenance Fees
The CAD/CAM software required for CNC programming usually involves annual maintenance and support fees. Most software suppliers charge 15-20% of the purchase price per year for updates, upgrades and technical support. For a typical $8,000 CAD/CAM package, that equates to around $1,500 annually for maintenance. Software maintenance costs are a recurring expenditure that should be included in the CNC operating budget.
Shop Overhead Costs
Along with the direct costs of the CNC equipment, facilities need to account for related shop overhead expenses. This includes costs such as floor space rental/lease, property taxes, insurance, utilities, cleaning services and facility maintenance. Leasing larger shop space to accommodate CNC machines can substantially impact overhead costs. Property taxes, electricity, heating and air conditioning also scale with facility size. Companies should factor in these additional overhead costs when evaluating the total expenditures associated with CNC.
Return on Investment (ROI) Analysis
Given the major capital expenditure, buyers commonly perform return on investment (ROI) calculations to justify the costs of CNC equipment. The projected ROI depends heavily on the expected utilization of the machines and associated improvements in production efficiency and part quality. Cost savings from reduced scrap and manual labor must be balanced with the upfront and ongoing CNC costs. As a rule, reasonably high production volumes are required to achieve a positive ROI within 2-3 years for major CNC purchases. But every shop has distinct cost drivers and needs that determine the practical ROI period for CNC machine tools.
The total costs of acquiring and operating CNC machining equipment can be quite substantial for manufacturers. The major cost components include the machine purchase price, cutting tools, workholding, software, setup, training, maintenance, tooling, materials, and facility overhead. Organizations must analyze both the initial outlay and ongoing operating costs when evaluating a significant CNC machine purchase. With proper planning and budgeting, CNC automation can still deliver tremendous gains in part quality, consistency and manufacturing productivity. But the costs of entry and ongoing ownership are not trivial, so companies should carefully weigh the total expenditures against the expected benefits to justify major CNC investments. CNC Milling CNC Machining