The technology of process designing of CNC Machining of much axis linkage of lamina of large hydraulic turbine

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Runner lamina is the crucial part that hydraulic turbine energy changes, also be the spare parts that machines the hardest, at present CNC Machining of much axis linkage is to solve the treatment method with the most significant part of curved surface of this kinds of large sculpture. Process designing of CNC Machining of much axis linkage is implementation its high accuracy and efficient the most important segment of treatment. Article introduction is large hydraulic turbine lamina involves runner lamina in process designing of curved surface of large sculpture of CNC Machining of 5 axes linkage three-dimensional model, knife orbit computation, cutting is emulated, collision of machine tool motion is emulated, the crucial technology such as postposition commutation. Carry the link of these pair of technologies and research, development realized the treatment of much axis linkage of large lamina. 1, the prime mover that foreword hydraulic turbine is waterpower, the actor bad of the production runner of lamina of hydraulic turbine runner moves to the safety of hydroelectric station aircrew, dependability, economy having tremendous effect. Lamina of hydraulic turbine runner is very complex sculpture face system. Be in large and medium-sized on aircrew workmanship, long-term since use " sand mold is cast -- emery wheel shovel is ground -- stereo example detects " workmanship, the accuracy that cannot assure blade face effectively and production quality. Using technology of CNC Machining of 5 axes linkage at present is the most advanced hi-tech in current machining. The CNC Machining process designing of spare parts of large and complex curved surface is the mainest technology base that realizes its digitlization to make, technology of process designing of its numerical control is a digitlization emulates an evaluation to reach optimize a process. Its key technology includes: The three-dimensional model of complex form spare parts reachs fixed position, knife of 5 axes linkage orbit program and computation, the cutter shaft that processes form of sculpture curved surface controls a technology, cutting is emulated reach interference to examine, and aftertreatment technology. The technology of process designing of numerical control of much axis linkage of large and complex curved surface makes the much axis CNC Machining of lamina of runner of body of sculpture curved surface becomes a possibility, this will drive the development of industry of our country hydraulic turbine and progress greatly, towards advanced production technology for manufacturing industry of equipment of our country water and electricity development lays a foundation. 2, the process of process designing of much axis CNC Machining of lamina of large hydraulic turbine is large and complex the process designing of numerical control of 5 axes linkage of curved surface spare parts wants than process designing of common spare parts complex much, be aimed at bulk of hydraulic turbine lamina big and model the characteristic with face curvature big change, through analysing treatment the requirement undertakes craft is designed, machine plan certainly, choose appropriate machine tool, cutting tool, clamping apparatus, affirmatory and reasonable line taking a knife and cutting dosage; The cutting tool in building the geometrical model of blade, computation to machine a process is opposite the athletic contrail at blade, the cutting that has blade next is emulated and the motion of the machine tool is emulated, amend treatment parameter, cutting tool parameter and plan of knife axle control repeatedly, happen without interference collision truly till emulation result, undertake an aftertreatment according to the block format with acceptability system of machine tool numerical control, create blade machine program. Its are specific process designing process is shown 1 times like the graph. Graph the flow of process designing of CNC Machining of 5 axes linkage of lamina of type of 1 large mixed flow 2. The three-dimensional geometry of lamina of 1 hydraulic turbine builds lamina of modular hydraulic turbine is the curved surface part that forms by curved surface of body of many pieces of sculpture, cannot define these curved surface with analytic equation. The hydrokinetics character that designs to satisfy blade asks, we use NURBS curved surface to approach a method to have curved surface model. To lamina of mixed flow type body of curved surface of this one complex sculpture by the front, the reverse side, with on what the coronal connects is banding what connect with runner band is circumgyrate face, banding curved surface of head of the face of curved surface of the circumgyrate face, edge that drink water, Bian Qu giving water, edge that drink water; The axis sheds type lamina by what have sculpture curved surface, rear, the edge that drink water changes curved surface of circular arc radius, give water edge curved surface, flange is spherical with cylinder, hub and flange are spherical, the curved surface side the skirt of flange, hub and flange and, rear excessive curved surface form. Because blade edge sheds the three-dimensional coordinate check the number of description to occupy,measure too big, can write program of a Grip to read in these three-dimensional coordinate to nod, use to lamina of mixed flow type double fill more than 3 times a curved surface piece the adopts a curve method that adopts free form feature has curved surface model, if pursue,2 are shown. And of lamina of axial shedding type, the reverse side is to press what fasten next giving out in columnar coordinate model value drop, write drop of a program general value to press cylinder sectional read in, change rectangular coordinates to fall, make NURBS curve along columnar and sectional line, next lofting (LOFT) those who make blade, rear curved surface, on this foundation, the give somebody a new lease on life three-dimensional geometry model that gives other curved surface to realize blade, if pursue,3 are shown. The semifinished product appearance of blade can count foothold to undertake buy computation is handled slanting from the design, or from three-dimensional measure gotten point to gather each curved surface that means decides pair of lamina have model of NURBS curved surface respectively, seam synthetic substance. 2. Craft of 2 lamina treatment plans to machine plan and treatment parameter selecting the efficiency of CNC Machining and quality. Hydraulic turbine lamina is system of very complex sculpture curved surface, the structure that in the light of lamina of hydraulic turbine of mixed flow type we machine blade according to wanting and characteristic choose movable type of large dragon door boring machine of mill of 5 coordinate numerical control, the basis located the principle is analysed via much research at 3 o'clock, the decision is machining the reverse side is to use general tape globose adjustable prop up, the fixed position that deserves to solder with blade sells pair of blade fixed position, solder on blade necessary craft piece, use a few current taut unit to hold clip. When machining the front, the mold that uses what cooperate mill to go out when treatment is rear to agree completely with the reverse side face, put blade the reverse side mold, use soldering technology piece undertake adjustment searching, still use pull press fitting buy generally to undertake holding clip. Because blade has much Zhang Qu to the face is combined and be become, machine the collision problem in the process to solve, we can use edge streamline to take a knife, to blade the reverse side undertakes divisional region is machined, according to curved surface everywhere of curvature different kind of the cutting tool that uses different diameter, different knife axle control will machine. Divide thick mill and essence mill commonly to every face. Do not collide in machine tool and workpiece and clamping apparatus and interfere a circumstance to fall, use milling cutter of big diameter curved surface as far as possible, in order to improve treatment efficiency. Blade we choose the reverse side 150 curved surface of Φ of cutting tool diameter 120 curved surface of thick mill of face milling cutter, Φ mill of essence of face milling cutter, blade head curved surface uses Φ the treatment of milling cutter of curved surface face of 80, edge giving water uses Φ 80 helix corn establishs milling cutter mill of side of 5 axes linkage. Emulate circumstance thresh according to sequel knife editor, in order to seek sound treatment program. In contented treatment requirement, machine tool moves normally and the premise of certain cutting tool life falls as far as possible improve treatment efficiency. 2. 5 axes linkage machines 3 lamina knife of orbit generate in the light of lamina of large hydraulic turbine the characteristic of each curved surface, undertake reasonable knife orbit program and computation, it is the knife that makes generate the key with tall efficiency of experience of orbit have nothing to do with, good without collision, stability, process designing. The cutting tool position that machines as a result of 5 axes and direction of cutting tool axes are change, because of treatment of this 5 axes is the knife in be being fastened by workpiece coordinate spot position vector and composition of vector of direction of cutting tool axes, the dip before cutter shaft can be passed and banking angle will control, the local coordinate computation that then we can be in in cutting dot according to curved surface gives a knife vector and cutter shaft vector. From the point of quality of treatment efficiency, surface and cutting technical properties, the direction that the choice regards milling as treatment along line of blade formative parameter divides thick mill and essence mill, differentiate next treatment area, define the parameter that concerns with the machine tool, distributinging circumstance of way of the treatment place that chooses blade according to above place, orientation that hold clip, machine tool, cutting tool and cutting parameter and surplus divides blade undertake machining respectively for many combination face. The analysis of the distributinging condition that carries pair of curved surface curvature uses different face milling cutter to different area. The surplus that rough machining gives out to be machined every time, finish machining uses the milling cutter of same diameter, according to surface roughness the requirement gives leftover height, choose the parameter such as means of knife of direction of parameter of cutting type, cutting, cutter shaft, advance and retreat to generate a knife according to particular case orbit. But to resembling blade such curvature changes very big and spare parts of inhomogenous sculpture curved surface we make many knife according to the circumstance even editor, and must be emulated through cutting further do interference and collision to the examination is revised and edit knife course. Graph lamina of type of 2 mixed flow is three-dimensional modelling pursues 3 axes shed type lamina three-dimensional model 2. Emulation CNC Machining of CNC Machining of 5 axes linkage emulates 4 lamina to machine method of environment, cutting tool and material excision to the process will examine and optimize machine program through software imitate, the cutting tool contrail that linkage of much axis of test and verify machines is emulated on the computer, assist the collision examination that undertakes cutting tool interferes examination and machine tool and lamina machining, replace try cutting or try treatment process, can reduce production cost greatly, shorten development is periodic, prevent the collision that machines equipment and lamina and clamping apparatus to wait, assure to machine the safety of the process. The NC code that processes a spare parts needs to undertake trying cutting normally before devoted and effective treatment, hydraulic turbine lamina is system of very complex sculpture curved surface, development uses CNC Machining to emulate a technology is the key that its use CNC Machining of 5 axes linkage successfully. Here, we undertake machining complex is analysed above all, principle of motion of configuration of model of system of CNC of clear machine tool, machine tool and dimension, machine tool and system of machine tool coordinate, build the hypostatic geometry model of component of machine tool motion and fixed component with three-dimensional CAD software, change into format of emulation software practicable, build cutting tool warehouse next, user file is built in emulation software, what the setting uses CNC system, build model of machine tool sports, namely component tree, add the geometrical model of each component, allow to locate truly, set machine tool parameter finally. Alternate blade model treatment position computation gives cutting tool contrail next, undertake blade cutting process, knife with this contrail again orbit and the three-dimensional trends that the machine tool moves are emulated. Such OK and clear monitoring machine a process to pass mediumly to blade cut with owe cut, each motion component and lamina mix arbor and connection system and lamina, machine tool the interference between clamping apparatus collides, assured the quality of numerical control process designing thereby, decreased to try cut workload and labor intensity, raised successful rate of process designing, shortened products plan and treatment are periodic, improve manufacturing efficiency greatly, if undertake popularizing in CNC Machining industry, can produce huge economy and social beneficial result. The axis sheds the machine tool treatment of type lamina to if the graph is shown 4 times,be emulated, if the graph is shown 5 times,the machine tool treatment of lamina of mixed flow type is emulated. Graph the machine tool treatment that 4 axes shed type lamina emulates a graph the machine tool treatment of lamina of type of 5 mixed flow is emulated 2. 5 lamina knife the processing of postposition processing postposition of orbit makes a of numerical control process designing serious content, the knife digit that it will generate before us suits the data of particular machine tool according to be being changed. Two essential factor with the mainest aftertreatment are knife course data and aftertreatment implement. The numerical control system that the function that we should understand the accessary facility that the structure of boring machine of mill of 5 coordinate numerical control, machine tool provides dragon door movable type, machine tool to have above all and the way that the function realizes and machine tool provide, the NC process designing that is familiar with this system includes the composition of functional code, implication. Use general postposition processor next oriented pattern plate, according to the knowledge of above control, develop processor of custom-built and special postposition. Already got us the knife next source file undertakes inputting be changinged into controallable the NC code that the machine tool processes. 3, the last word is complex the process designing of numerical control of much axis linkage of curved surface is the complex technological process that involves numerous domain knowledge, it is digitlization is emulated reach optimized process. The technology of process designing of much axis linkage of the lamina of large hydraulic turbine of article introduction, already used at the project in the numerical control process designing of actual and large lamina, the knife of the CNC Machining of 5 axes linkage that realized large runner lamina orbit computation and treatment are emulated, assured the quality of follow-up CNC Machining and efficiency, the process designing tool that already regarded lamina of large hydraulic turbine as CNC Machining of 5 axes linkage is used in actual production. CNC Milling CNC Machining